Fedora: some useful commands

Few use full commands which one has to know before doing anything
these commands are with respect to the terminal.
first go to terminal
1) TO KNOW THE SHELL INSTALLED
echo $SHELL

2)To know which shells are supported
cat /etc/shells

3) To list different directories and files
ls
dir
dir –color

to display hidden file
ls -A
ls -a

4)Present working directory
pwd

5)system time and date
date

6)calender
cal

7) T open a manual of any software which is installed then type
man
8)To create folders
mkdir

to make multiple folders
mkdir -p abc/b/c
creates a folder c in b in abc

to c all internal folders
ls -R

8)To know file type
file

9)change directory
cd
cd .. —————————–>goes to previos directory
cd ——————————> goes to root

10)To delete a folder
rmdir
rm -rf

11)create a txt file
touch
vi
cat
echo
gedit

12)Go to root
su

13)Logout
ctrl+D

14)To display a msg
echo ” message”

15)To copy
cp

16)To rename
>>mv

17)To copy a directory
cp -r

18)To display ip
ifconfig

19)To change ip
ifconfig 192.2.2.2
ex:
ifconfig 192.2.2.2

20)Create tar(zipped files)

tar -cvf .tar

extracts tar contents
>>tar -xvf .tar
display
>>tar -tvf .tar

unzip
>>gunzip .tar.gz

Hope u enjoy this 🙂

What next after installing Fedora.

I recently installed the latest version of fedora. i.e fedora 15 with spins as electronics lab.
fedora 15 is really awesome. Initially it will trick u out! u will not be able to power off or shutdown ur computer!!! and also u wil find no software or anything!! well.. dont be puzzled to see those but its just the “SIDE EFFECT” of gnome 3 :P. here are few things which one has to do in case if he has to solve some minor problems like this 🙂 (not a problem actually. but these things has to unhided)

1)To get power off button go to user name(right most corner) and click over dre. now u press ALT key. U will get the power off option 🙂

2)it will be good if u install these rpms once u configured ur LAN. (Configuring LAN is easy if u use dynamic type. and if its static type then go to network setting(option is near to ur user name or battery level indicator and den select network setting). switch the LAN on and go to option. Select IPv4 setting.

Change these after clicking add

method : manual

address : ur IP address
netmask : 255.255.0.0
gateway : watevr was urs.
DNS server : watevr was urs.
search domain : 202.144.95.4 or watever was urs.

click on require IPv4 settings… then click save!! u r done 🙂 LAN will start working.

for dynamic LAN u got to select automatic in method 🙂

3) next its better if u make some appearance changes. so to do that download gtweek-tool.
go to terminal> type these

su //goes to root
password :
yum install gnome-tweak-tool

den go to windows and search for tweek tool settings and change the appearance as u want 🙂

4) also i say its good to install YUM EXTENDER. bcoz we are damn lazy people and we cant remember updating all softwares and all stuffs 🙂

5) after this if u want some colorful terminal 🙂 like QUAKE game.. den add quake terminal.
su //goes to root
password :
yum install guake

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Fedora Installation(General) for external Hard Disk

Hey people… I had mentioned that i will be publishing how to install fedora on external hard disk. Before coming to how to install… i wanna say that dont think that linux is not ur cup of tea… actually linux is far better than anyother OS we have. U will understand as you learn more abt it. just u require is the passion for it.

Installation:
1) U should have the copy of fedora in a DVD. If u dont have then u can download it from

please note : if u want electronics lab den download the fedora with electronics lab instaed of installing it later. i had troubles installing later. u can get the spins(FEL version) in the option mentioned under SPINS.
after downloading, burn it in a dvd using some writer. There are different methods to use it. u can use it either from DVD or from USB or even LIVE. The only difference is where you store the setup.

2) insert the DVD in DVD slot and restart the system. Now u should go for BIOS settings. For each motherboards ther is a particular key for BIOS settings(usually F10,DEL,F5,F8,F12,ESC). after going to BIOS, go for BOOT options. there u should enable CD boot(if disabled) and den go for BOOT ORDER. Make the DVD reader as first boot device and then save it and restart.(dont forget to redo the same thing after installation and select the first boot device as hard disk)
(U MAY LOG INTO COMPUTER. This is bcoz of LIVE USER FACILITY IN FEDORA. in that case login and select install to hard disk option. which is present either in left panel or on desktop)
3)Now select Install to new system option

4)wait till it loads and then click on NEXT>Select lang> select basic storage device(NOTE: EXTERNAL HARD DISK IS A BASIC STORAGE DEVICE)

5)Give a name to ur computer
6)Select ur area and time laocation and den set ur root password

7)Next u sould go for custom layout or (FREE SPACE if u have unpartitioned space in ur hard disk)

ONLY DIFFERENC COMES HERE. HERE U WILL SELECT THE REQUIRED STARAGE DEVICE.
8)U wil get a a option to select which hard disk. usually first one is internal and second one is external HD.
select second one and move to right box
(DOING 8th point IS NOT REQUIRED IF U HAV OPTED FOR CUSTOM LAYOUT)
9)Next u will get a page containing all the partitioned and free space details.(THIS STEP IS VERY IMP AND SHOULD BE CAREFUL)
select the right device(usually second one)
and select the partition wre u want to instal it. if u dont have req partition den u should delete it and convert to free space. later for for create or edit partition.
select standard partition
one will get a page saying mount point,file system type,etc.

Here one should note that if he uses dual boot then he has to give a certain amount of space for SWAP drive and if single booting den it doesnt req.

Mount point : blank
File system type : SWAP
Allowable drives : select(check mark) the external disk
Size : 8192MB (its good to have a bit comparable size for swap bcoz to speed the switching on process. if 500GB ext HD den have atleast 6GB reserved for SWAP, for 250 or 320GB have atleat 4GB as SWAP)

select fixed size.
click OK

again select the free space
Create or edit>STD partition>

Mount point : / (says root)
File system type : ext4 (similar to FAT32 or NTFS)
Allowable drives : select(check mark) the external disk
Size : remaining size

select fixed size.
click OK

Click next

10)Next wait till the mounting and installation is completed. after the installation restart the computer and dont forget to change the BIOS settings.

11)Next u should create ur user account>set password.
For these follow on screen options. U are done with installation.

i have added few pictures. u can go throug if u get stuck somewre.

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have a great time. Enjoy!!! 🙂 😀