3 Mistakes of LCD with MSP430 [SOLVED]

You might have scratched your head and said, “OMG!! Its difficult to interface MSP430 and LCD!” If you have been working on it then you surely would have! Also here in today’s blog I would like to add another solution too. I keep hearing that msp430 cannot be used as atmega. Whenever asked the reason what people say is that the logic level doesnt match. One is in cmos and other is in ttl. Well, one should agree the point that we hobby project makers are always a long way behind the companies. That is the main reason in which we dont employ mcu as msp430 which is small and but highly powerful. In my previous post I had shared my experience with TI ADC Phase 1. I had used msp430f149 for my project and I had faced similar problems “logic mismatch”. So today what I am writing will be concentrated on how to solve this problem. My team has found a good solution to solve this issue.

 Before coming to solution its always required to know what exactly the problem is. Let me give an example and explain the problem.

 The most important problem everyone has is LCD 16×2 interfacing with MSP430. The LCD 16×2 which is usually available in market works on TTL logic. Now what is TTL logic is?

As wiki says, “Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and resistors. It is called transistor–transistor logic because both the logic gating function (e.g., AND) and the amplifying function are performed by transistors (contrast with RTL and DTL). Standard TTL circuits operate with a 5-volt power supply. A TTL input signal is defined as “low” when between 0V and 0.8V with respect to the ground terminal, and “high” when between 2.2V and 5V(precise logic levels vary slightly between sub-types and by temperature). TTL outputs are typically restricted to narrower limits of between 0V and 0.4V for a “low” and between 2.6V and 5V for a “high”, providing 0.4V of noise immunity”

 It should be noted that, though TTL has logic low as <0.8V and high as >2.6V many a times the actual value will be low as <1.5V and high as >3.5V.

 Now coming to CMOS logic, What is it mean? These logic devices works with 3.3Vpower supply. Here usually low means <0.8V and high means >2.3V.

 Observing TTL and CMOS, if ideal cases are considered then there is no trouble in conversion between the two logic levels. 3.3V will be considered as high in TTL. But problem is that ideal case doesnt exit!

So it is much required to do the conversion to get rid of this problem. Hence from many months a lot of work in this part has gone and few possible solution where done. Few among them are mentioned below.

  1. Using pull up resistor : Well some people claim this is one of the best and easy solution for this problem. However when comes to LCD interfacing this just doesnt work!

  2. Transistor conversion : Using a BJT or MOSFET people say it is possible to convert. Theoretically one can prove this. There are people who have done circuits based on this and solved the LCD problem. However its is that fast and it usually become clumsy.

  3. Use another controller : This is one also possible but you need to integrate two controllers. One working in 5V logic and other in 3.3V. Example is MSP430 and ATMEGA. Connect LCD to atmega. This has one main problem that you require another controller! So what is the point of using MSP then? For testing purpose one can use it but when comes to hardware this just complicates the overall thing!

  4. Therefore, it was much required to see whether there is any IC which can solve this problem. However, if you search in google you do get a lot of ICs which solves this problem, but there are only few which actually solves! Others have problem of gate delays and frequency matching. Hence a proper IC has to be selected. The IC which I and my teammates found providing the best solution was CD 4050. TI provides this IC too! Use this IC to match the logic levels.

 Now let me concentrate mainly on LCD solution and explain in more detail. For any other logic mismatch you just have to change the LCD with your required device🙂 Thats all!

 The main reasons for not working of LCD interface in MSP430 is –

1)LCD (16 x 2) display works with 5V logic level (TTL), where as TI MCU works with 3V logic levels (CMOS). There is voltage level mismatch between the two components.

2) Not understanding data-sheet of LCD 16×2. Contrast pin is not connected properly. LCD which I used datasheet can be seen at

3)Initialization problems.

(These were the problems which we faced)

Here are the steps for interfacing TIMCU and LCD (16×2). I have chosen MSP430F149 Micro controller to interface to LCD and have used 8bit logic interface.

Do the connections as you want. However keeping in mind that you do it in sequence. This is will help in easier debugging. In the example provided, I have considered P1 as address/control and P2 as data pins.

Voltage Level mismatch:

To solve the problem of voltage level mismatch between the TIMCU and LCD, as said we will use logic level shifter IC. HCF4050 (or CD4050) from ST electronics. Its a 16 pin IC which converts 3.3V level to 5V level, and 0v to 0v level. These have CMOS hex convertors. The data sheet of IC- HCF4050 can be obtained from the link

I will explain one pin connection. RS and similarly others will follow. A diagrammatic representation is as shown. You will require 2- HCF4050 IC to connect the entire LCD to MSP430F149 in 8bit method.

Now in-case if you have used 4bit method, then you require 2 CD4050 since IC supports only 6 conversions. Dont ask me the code for this. Because, if I give the code, then the third problem you will solve very easily! So some problems should be there otherwise you will do copy pasting! Learn and paste ! That is why I am giving. I will write a library file and will try updating it in case you could not solve the problem!

 For any other device replace the LCD with your device. Dont forget to use the CD4050. In the last, for every problem there exists a proper solution. Its only the way in which you find it is different.

 To solve this problem we have burnt 2 LCDs and 2 MCUs!😀 Well it paid well though🙂

The blog is re-blogged at

He is one among my teammate who took time drawing images for you to better understand🙂

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Hello…. It’s been a long time without writing the blog….

Well this time I am not going to be technical instead I am being non technical…

Looking at the title you might thought I am going to comment on some problems or so tell something else …. If so….. You are wrong… I am writing about my experience in 4days of placement training…. Well… the training so good that it lead me share my experience.

If you are in 3rd year of engineering, then you really know the importance of being placed! So the placement officer took a great responsibility to train us before we go for placement (you can imagine how good we were then…) Placement training is done basically to bridge the gap between the campus and company. However there is no much difference between the two but main differences are that what you used to do in free time in campus is not to be done at company.

My journey towards placement training started from February, 2012. I had a fix my training dates since my fellowship at IIT-B was suppose to start from 26th of June. I approached the placement office to know when the training is going to start. I got to know the dates are not fixed and is still being processed. However I got an answer to a question which I had. If I cannot attend the training on prescribed date then I have option of changing my batch. But I felt sad since I will miss my classmates with whom I studied for 3 years. I was feeling troubled thinking should I change my batch at all?

In the month of May, the placement officer at last broke the ice and declared the days. I got to know my batch training starts from 29th June and company heard was “GRAMAPHONE”. We approached our seniors and asked about the trainers. We learnt they had ASK as their trainer and they have no clue about GRAMAPHONE. They shared their experiences at the ASK and we are shocked. We wondered whether the same would happen with our batch. However I was still in unconfused state, I had to change batch or I got to leave the fellowship. At last, I decided to change my batch. I wrote a letter to placement officer and requested to change my batch. The placement officer later put me into MECH B section, whose training was scheduled on 20th of June. I was fine with the dates but was sad about missing my friends in the group work. I had no clue on what to do. I told my friends that I would miss you guys at the training and had to take decision.

Day 1:

The days started running and training date approached. 20th June, I called up Vijai (placement coordinator – Mech B) and asked him the venue. BSN Hall was decided as venue and we were supposed to assemble at sharp 9am. I reached the venue 10mins earlier (Someone had told that if you are not in time you will be asked to do pole dance or belly dance). I found an Electrical guy switching on AC. I noticed that it was Roshan, EEE placement coordinator. I asked him what was he doing at the venue in which we are supposed to be trained. He said, “We have taken the room and it’s for ASK”. I was confused and called up Vijai and asked for confirmation of the venue. Vijai responded “I am sure it is in BSN HALL. I am still on bike and call you back when I reach”. Well the time was already 8.55am and placement coordinator, Vijai is still in bike!!! And doesn’t know the venue!!! I am amazed by his time management. Luckily I had few hostelates to accompany me. I asked them whether Vijai is latecomer. Well his friends said yes he is….! In the meantime, the GRAMAPHONE mam had already reached the venue and even she was confused about the placed. She started calling placement officer and shouted about the venue…!!! I was standing besides and was thinking what to do. After thinking for some time, I decided to speak to this mam. I went and asked, “Are you from GRAMAPHONE?” She replied in American ascent, “Yes my dear, I represent GRAMPHONE. Who is your placement coordinator and where is he?” The way in which she spoke sounded that she is tough and strict. She also sounded highly professional. Also I noted that it’s not GRAMAPHONE but it is GRAMPHONE. I responded politely, “I have no clue where Vijai is and I am not from MECH B section” I conveyed the reason why I had shifted my batch. Meantime Vijai had come was roaming around the college to know where the room is. Mam is already pissed off since she didn’t get BSN hall which was allocated and also for standing for more than half hour outside and losing the precious time. She called up the placement officer and started belting and also asked us to change the placement coordinator since he was not responsible!!! Everyone was clueless what to do and we just started seeing the scene between mam and placement officer. It was fun to watchJ. After sometime, the Vijai returned and said we shall move to TCE seminar hall. The only problem with hall was it was not cleaned and one can hardly see a PPT over there. Mam was very strict with cleanliness and she waited till the room gets cleaned. We moved towards the seminar hall, TCE. When we reached there we found that room is still being cleaned. We had to wait for another half hour!!! Almost we wasted 1hour just waiting. We all were eager to know how the placement training going to be and our hunger for the answer just grew more…

At last we finally ended up getting the room. We all sat in the benches which we covered with dust. I went and sat in the 3rd bench in the right side. Mam introduced her selves and asked us not to call “mam” and instead call “Anita”. She said,” in corporate world everyone calls other person my name and words like sir, mam doesn’t exist and you are not supposed to use it.” Later she discussed about the problems she faced that day. She said,”BSN HALL was always reserved for GRAMPHONE and this year I am clueless why it is changed”. Later she discussed about the agenda for next four days. Vijai who was sitting in the last bench got up and moved towards the mam (hard to Anita in the beginning. Human practise). He said he wants to collect the attendance. The sheet was passed on. At the end, Vijai and Anita (mam) found that 4-5 are missing. Anita called those 4-5 students who were late. There were strange responses from them. One guy replied, “Hey dude, my placement training starts from 22nd and not today” There was one more beautiful conversation between Anita and one student

Anita: “Good morning, where are you my dear?”

Student: “At homeJ”

Anita: “What you doing, my dear?”

Student: “Watching TVJ”

Anita: “This is Anita from GRAMPHONE, Your placement trainer and if you are not here in 15mins I will have to cancel your placement. Don’t run while coming. Be calm, no need to take bath…! Also get your girl friend along with you”

Well… if you were student you pretty well know what you would have done when you heard this statement! We waited for another 5mins for projector arrangements and also for friends. Anita began by telling that we will group ourselves into groups and we have fun activities for each group. She started giving numbers randomly and asked us to sit according to numbers. I got number 2. I moved and searched for my team mates! I found Vijai as my team mate. I knew another guy in the team, SAMBRAM, who is going to be next SAEBMSCE student head. All my other friends whom I knew were scattered. I felt all alone. But I like the idea of Anita. I started speaking with my team mates. Our team had totally 8 members. I didn’t ask their names. Anita assigned our first job. We were supposed to give our team names and slogan for the team in 10mins! Well that was pretty close. We started discussing on team names. Everyone put their views. We started taking the names from movies and all. But all of us had a strange feeling, we wanted a funny name and slogan which none of else have used! One guy from the group suggested “Victoria Secret” Another said “GIJO” One more ”French Toast Mafia” one more “rangers”… many names came forward and it was almost time. We decided to go with “French Toast Mafia” but it was quiet big and we were searching for slogan. Suddenly Sambram suggested us “The Others …” All of us heard only “The Others” and we didn’t hear words after that. Anita started asking for team names, team leader and slogan. We thought we will decide to go with”French Toast Mafia” or “The Others”. Now, it was team 1 turn,

Team 1: One guy stood “Our team name is Phoenix and team leader is Shashank Jathar and Slogan is “RISE FROM THE ASHES”

It was our turn, we appointed one person as team leader and I didn’t know his name! He said,” Our team name is French toast Mafia” Everyone laughed!!! We didn’t tell the slogan since we didn’t prepare any. Similarly other teams named themselves as “α – Qube”, “JOBLESS”, “G 4” “∞ NO LIMITS”. Well everyone had strange names and small and sweet… we immediately changed the name to “THE OTHERS”. Anita wrote all team names in the white board and started given points according to names. Phoenix got 500points; The OTHERS got 400points, JOBLESS got 400, etc… This was the first session of the day. The moto of the session was selection of team and mingle with them, understand them and bring out the best by talking and creativity.

We got break and we left for coffee. I made sure that I ask everyone’s name. The team consisted of me, Sharath Kumar, Shashiteja, Siddeshwar, Sambram, Santhosh, Ragavendra and the Vijai. The team leader was Rags. It was 11.15am when we returned and Anita had already designed next session for us. The next session was to enact. It was all about presentation, advertising, etc. Anita gave us a situation and asked us to find the solution for the situation and also end the play. Everyone was supposed to be involved and play should have different roles.

The situation was, “A small happy family had a couple. As years passed on, the husband has relationship with the wife’s best friend. A mutual friend of theirs sees the affair of husband and later reports it to his wife. What would be the response of the wife? Define the roles and enact and give an end. The end can be husband becoming a gay or wife…”  We were given 20mins to think and practise and also create roles and dialogues. Oops!!! Hard time! All the team started the plan for their play. Well I won’t discuss about what each one did and their dialogues. If you want I will post it as comment. I will discuss what we did. We decided to have a chain story. We wrote scripts accordingly and we enacted. I became narrator and one more role which I played was “RAMU” assistant of counsellor.

The play goes here

Everything is cool. Happy family. Husband reading newspaper and wife getting coffee for him. Husband: See how stupid people are. Tiger woods’ is spending have of his income on his wife by getting divorced.  It’s really bad.

Wife: Ya, What to do honey?

Husband: Leave. I am getting late for my office. Get me some food.

Wife goes in. Husband sends opens his mobile and sends message to his affair,”MUNNI”. Wife returns with food. Husband hurries without having and leaves to office telling he is already late and will catch up in the evening. Later his busy schedule was to call up MUNNI. He called up MUNNI

Husband: “Hello MUNNI, were are you? Can I come now to your home?”

MUNNI:”Hello darling, I am fine. Miss you. Come home Na. I am waiting…”

Husband:” Don’t worry. I will be there in 5mins.”

Husband rushes to MUNNI’s home and there the conversation goes like this

MUNNI: Why are you late honey? I was worried.

Husband: You know my mom she gave me my food pretty late. So I couldn’t come early. See I have got two tickets to go to cinema. We shall go to “The dirty Picture” I heard it is pretty good movie.

MUNNI: How sweet of you. Let’s go.

In the theatre,

Husband to some person: Move a bit other side. We would like to sit together in the corner.

The person was none other than mutual friend and see the husband and immediately moves out of cinema hall and calls up his wife and reports the incident. Wife though couldn’t believe, however doubts her husband. Sheela later calls up her best friend and speaks to her. The friend suggests her to meet a counselor. The husband in the meantime returns home. Sheela is full of questions and starts firing. She finds movie tickets in her husband pockets and she gets upset. They have long quarrel and decide upon to meet the counsellor the next day. The couple reach the counsellor office. They check for appointment with the assistant RAMU. Though the counsellor is busy killing the mosquitoes RAMU says he is quiet busy with work. He makes them wait for hour. And then speaks to counsellor. The counsellor asks how the girl is. RAMU says “Aachi piece he sar”. Counsellor calls them. The counsellors listen to complaints what wife gives and gives least importance to the husband. The husband gets proper belting and in the last counsellor gives a gap of ten days to sort the things out. The husband understands the trouble and calls up MUNNI and asks her to leave his life. Sheela in the meantime revisits the counsellor. Counselor gives more interest towards her and she starts feeling more comfortable with the counsellor. They start go out together for coffee in the name of counselling and also to movies. The husband is totally fine and he assume everything is cool. One day, a friend of husband sees the wife and counsellor together. The friend calls up the husband and meets at home. They have drink together. The friend tells about the affair which his wife and counsellor is having. The husband is shocked and leaves for pee. The friend accompanies him (They turn gay). The whole moto of the play was “At the end of the day, solution of one problem is beginning of another.”

Similar to our play there were many other plays which each team showed upon. They were all unique and each one idea was different. The teams were later evaluated on points and given rating.

Day1 afternoon:

Session 1: Post lunch we were supposed to assemble at basketball court. We had a game. The game was all about how well you can run and teamwork. 2 towels were tied with 3 knots to the basketball posts. One person from an each group is supposed to run and untie it and get it back to next person. The person who has towel again has to run and retie at the post with one not. And return empty handed and gives pass to the next person. The procedure is repeated and the team which finishes all team members wins. If at any point of time towel touches the ground then the team is disqualified.

Session 2: This session was more about the leadership, team work. A video was shown and the video has drawback of failure/rejection of a project work. Each team was asked to give inputs to failure of the team and also how it could had been managed to get better teamwork and team play. How well a team leader could have been and the project ended up successfully. We were also requiring comparing the previous activities and stating our point of view.

At the end of the day every team got their scores.

Phoenix – 4250

The Others – 3500

α – Qube – 3200

G 4   – 4200

∞ NO LIMITS – 4100

JOBLESS – 3500

Well our team was the last but one in the list!!! We felt pretty bad. We thought it’s not the end it’s just the beginning.

DAY 2:

Let me go in a brief next. I don’t have much time to write.

Session 1: Day begun with latecomers. We were requested to come by 9am and we never do come. Anita waited for 5 more mins. She found still many members missing and started deducting points. 200 points were deducted per person. We had two members shortage and we lost 400 points! The team which had all member sin time got 1000 bonus points. We moved to the last position in the table. Well after sometime late comers entered. They were asked to move forward to stage and were given a dare. Few members got to propose a girl, few others got singing. The best was pole dance and belly dance. Pankaj steps for Sheela ki Javani can never be forgotten!!!

In the later half interview question pattern were discussed and note on public speaking and creativity was given. Each team was given 20mins to design a logo and slogan. Each team has to come forward and showcase why did they design the logo and also speak about their strengths and how their strength would help his team win the game.

We had designed a “RGB MODEL” as logo and our tag line was “DIFFERENCES INTEGRATED”. We won the highest for creativity. The PIC of the logo is added below. Anita made sure that each one speaks and she noted the comments for the same. At the end of session each one’s comments were read out and points were awarded. She gave us suggestion in improving body language, communication skills etc.

Session 2: As usual we had to assemble at basket ball court. We had strategy game this time. The after session was mind blowing. The game description is below. Two battle fields were given. There were given mines. The size of mine was just sufficient to put two foots in it. There were dead mines. If you put your foot in it then your team is disqualified. You are also told that each team member should be connected by hand. At the end of the track we had to cross a wire at certain height and no matter what no one should touch it. If you touch it your team is disqualified. Also the hands should be connected till all team members cross the wire. Well if you think it’s all don’t know it’s not. Among your team mate one person is injured and can’t see. Your team should carry him along the track and reach the destination. You can carry or guide him.

This was a strategy game and was very tough. High team spirit was required. We got together and started thinking what to do. The problem in our team was that no one was that heavy enough to lift another guy and carry more than 10m! All weighted from 55kg to 75kg! At last I became volunteer to lift a guy. I started checking for the lightest guy. Though there were two I found Shashiteja being steadier and giving me perfect center of gravity to move! He became my “BETHALA”. With him I could move easily for 10mins plus. We practised for 10mins. Other team started the game. Infinity No Limits managed to win with time 2’35’’. Second turn was ours. We moved towards the track. We joined our hands together. Suddenly we felt that we are not comfortable with hand joining. We readjusted our positions, I became lead and every alternate ones faced opposite. We were totally comfortable and could move easily. Anita said, on your mark, get set, go…. Everybody was shouting… We didn’t listen and we just kept going… Since our strategy was quite simple and we had to simply walk we almost reached the end. But it was not done. The last mine was tedious. I didn’t have space to rotate for more than 180 degree. The mine was about in 240+ degree position. I didn’t have option. I said to my BETHALA, “Macha hold me tight”. And told my next person to hold a bit lose so that I can rotate. I stood on the toe and made sure I was able to rotate for desired angle. Then we crossed the wire easily. Well. We did it pretty well but didn’t know how well exactly. We moved forward and checked for our timing. It was 1’14”!!! The fastest of all!!! Other two teams later competed and they came 1’34”. We were declared as winners. When we started moving towards the TCE block, Anita told us that “The OTHERS” has broken all records in the game! No one so far whom I had trained had been so fast!  Well were overwhelmed. The game fetched us 1000points and we made a mark to come in hit list! We were in second position after Infinity No Limits.

The main thing which made the others to win was good team spirit, understanding and also good communication. Well I learnt that you should believe in yourself. If you believe you can do it yes you can!

The next session was on grammars and verbal part 1. It was again a group event. We were given 15 questions. We managed to crack 9 on those. We understood how pathetic we were in grammar. However though we cracked only 9 we managed to get more points. At the end, we had a video performance by Shabi (Favourite student of Anita in the batch). If Shabi was in job, how he would o home on Friday and how he would return of Monday. The video was brilliant and total fun watching!

The day was best day. At the beginning of the day we were in last position and at the end of the day we managed to top the list! We “THE OTHERS” made a complete difference. Still we were JOBLESS.

I got to know that my teams consisted of nerds! Out of 8, we backed 5 toppers!!! And remaining had descent score above 8.8! I wondered why the hell we did not know ourselves as “THE NERDS”: P Since it suits the team. But the main thing was we went beyond everyone’s expectations and fight for top 3 was all on…. Score board was …

Phoenix – 7950

The Others – 8500

α – Qube – 7800

G 4   – 7100

∞ NO LIMITS – 8400

JOBLESS – 7400

DAY 3:

Well I had almost forgotten to write the today’s blog. The day started as usual. If you think it was late comers who started then you are wrong. All of them were on time but Anita was late by 15min! She had to drove back to get some stuffs which she forgot to get it for the day’s event. Since everyone was on time, she gave us special “Calicut meta”. It tasted like barely sweet and it is sweet so it was good. The session begun with chewing Meta and listening to presentation skills, interview skills.  We asked for reshow the performance of Shabi again! Later in the session it was all about verbal reasoning. 50 questions on various aspects of English were given and it was asked for us to solve for it.

Afternoon at 2 we came to basketball court. As usual we had a game. It was fun game with little strategy. It was called “Pass the Ball”. The game was again a group based. The game rules were similar to “Lagory”. The game didn’t have pile of boxes as in case of Lagory. Here two teams were given hitting and running chance. At a time one team hits and other runs to escape. The total duration for each team is 1min. In case of Lagory, if one person gets the shot then the whole team gets disqualified whereas here only that person disqualifies. The number of shots is multiplied by two get the total points. In the game we managed to get 2 shots both sides. We secured 400points. The strategy what we used didn’t work this time. Well “The Others” was not bothered of winning at the point of time. After this game Anita made us to play another one game. Many people know the game. It was individual one and the game is called “Fire in the mountain, run… run… run….” No point was awarded for this game.

It was about 3pm and we were tired. We left the field and moved to class. The session started with evaluation of those 50 verbal questions. “The Others” managed to get 42/50, increasing the points by 4200. The Phoenix, The Others and No Limits were pretty close. However NO LIMITS lost points because of speaking in the class. They also lost points for late coming. Consequently they dropped 4th position. We then had topics related to interview, GD, CV writing. In the last session we had a strategy game. “Joining the pictures which were torn apart” We used to play this game when we were kids but when we played we really looked into solving it. Here it was all about solving and team work. The team leaders went and collected the pictures from Anita. Anita said, “You can think the game is simple but you should get the catch otherwise you will lose the game. When you complete shout BINGO” Well we really didn’t understand what the “catch” was. We spread out all the cards and we started arranging different parts together. After a min we understood it was Scooby Doo picture and we were supposed to make a picture. We did all the parts perfectly but we were short of one card to finish the game. We had a mistaken card and we asked what to do with Anita. She said, “Help yourselves” We understood the “catch” and we took from next team and we shouted “BINGO… BINGO…BINGO” It was all done in 2mins and we ended up getting 600points. We still were in top rank with 450 points leading from Phoenix.

DAY 4:

It was the last day of training. We were supposed to wear blue jeans and white shirt or t-shirt. It was the symbol of GRAMPHONE. Everyone did wear the dress and when we entered whole class was looking as one team, as one group. All united and together we represented! It was brilliant moment for everyone. We weren’t bothered about the points anymore. Few people came late and 400points per person was deducted. No team was full. So no one bothered! The session begun with Aptitude and verbal reasoning and it was taught by Srinivas from IMS training centre. We were given a set of 60 questions and were told we had 45mins to solve it. It was individual event. We started solving silently. After that, valuation of the paper was done and marks were awarded. Siddeshwar topped with outstanding mark of 49 on 60! Well, none of reached near him. The Srinivas was really happy by looking to the performance. He increased the difficulty level to another level and taught us more questions. Afternoon we were back again to TCE hall. No more games. Anita discussed important questions in HR round and how to answer to it. Ragavendra our team leader got bored and slept. Anita saw it and reduced our points by 500. Luckily we were still leading the Phoenix by 50points. We hoped we don’t have another group event. Later session was all about GD. Many topics were discusses and the students turned bulls. Almost everyone open their mouth to put their views. GD ended and it was all over. The team winners were announced. We The Others made a difference by winning the show! Anita had told initially that at the end of training she will award 3 people as best student. Anita started the awards from 2nd runner up position. The 2nd runner up was taken by Rahul and first runner up by NG Bidyasagar Singh and the winner was Sandeep. Anita added these people though talked less but they have made the impact which was supposed to be done and hence they deserved the place. After the calling out the names, feedback was taken. Later the room was free for partying.

The party begun by cutting down chocolate cake! Yummy! Tasted awesome!!! It was written “ALL THE BEST” For the party we added flavour. The Bidyasagar took the opportunity to dedicate a song for Anita and he sung in his melodious voice. Appreciation with applause was given to him. Pankaj had brought candle and knife to cut the cake. He requested Anita to light up the candle! The candle tuned itself to firework and she was puzzled! Her face was fun to watch at the point of instance. All ate the cake and the party begun! Songs from different corner of the room echoed with the dance steps of Mech B guys. Sahil Mohan shook his waist as Katrina Kaif! Who can forget the dance made my Nitin Patni and Ragavendra! Their Cat Walk was the best of all! “Rags YOU ROCK!” Shashank Jathar took his time in teaching his classmates how to dance. He showed how to convert tap motions to hand steps, cigarette crushing to leg steps, bulb fixing to hand steps and tuned the music to “Chikni chameli” Sad thing was we didn’t have girls! We missed couple dance but we made sure “someone” represent the girl and have a couple dance: D. However the best performance of dance award should go to “SHARATH BABU”. Brilliant performance by him. Awesome steps. If BMSCE DANCE team had seen his dance I guess he would have to change his group from Quiz club to dance team! Later we requested Anita to dance. She made guest appearance and we moved on. The party continued for another 45mins and after that we decided to stop and start discuss on general issue regarding placement. At last we had leave and disperse was called off. All moved together united in a different style leaving all differences.

Well the placement training made a lot of difference. I didn’t know anyone in the group and ended becoming good friends. The Mech B guys never considered me as outsider. They took my view points and also expressed their.

I felt missed in the day 1.

It went all down day2.

I feel missed again.

Gonna miss two groups this time!


All the best for you guys🙂

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MSPFET430UIF DRIVERS Problem [Solved]

How to solve TI-FET430UIF prorammer driver problem:

If u are using MSP430 and at some point of time you would have faced this trouble… U will try loaing your program to ur target board through FET UIF but you will get a fatal error stating programmer not working!! check if the programmer is connected to ur computer!!! But you know that the programmer is correctly connected an you would see red or green leds glowing in the programmer.. U might have scratched your head to solve this problem!!! If so then you are also one person like me, who faced it!!!. For 15days I had been scratching my head to rectify this problem.. and today I did it… SO i thought I would write this blog so that it would help someone at some point of time in future🙂

The problem description in detail:

i m working on msp430f149. i was trying a sample led blink program.
The code is
#include “msp430x149.h”
void main()
int i=0;
for(i=0;i Firmware V3 to V2 downgrader.

Let me tell you how I solved my case!!

1)I installed IAR workbench. New version
2)I downloaded latest version of MSP430.dll file for advance programmers from TI site. (27MB file)
3)Went to device manager->texas instrument (warning symbol)->update driver->select the folder where u have msp430.dll file->install the driver.
4) You would see that the driver is installed in device manager. It would be shown as com port in the port division. as MSP430FETUIF-CDC or VPC.(COM57) (Note down the COM no)
5)Now go to AR WORKBENCH in the start menu click-> Firmware V3 to V2 downgrader.
6)A command promt wil open -> press y-> another command promt will open-> press continue-press y…..-> finish updating frimware.
7)remove ur programmer->reconnect the same. Devive manager u can see that the texas instruments option would be under other devices now.
8)Go to IAR. Write led blick program. Go to options in ur project->select debugger->select TI-Debugger-UIF->Select the device port as COM57(ur COM no). By default it will be automatic.
9)Debug and Download the code->U wil get a warning->Device driver is not matching. Do you want to update the drivers.->say yes. ->Firmware updating complete.->Erasing memory location->Downloading program… RUN!!! Your programmer will start working superbly once again!!🙂

This is how I solved it!! If u hav stuck up anywere then post your prob here. I will try providing solution if its related to it…. 15days research I had done!!!😀

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Experience in TI Analog Design Contest

Had completely forgotten to update the Phase 2 thing!! Soon coming …. TI- ADC-2011 Phase 2 details! The best experience🙂 Wait… for few days.. I m still recollecting the memories.🙂

Who has what? Just wait!


Hello guys…!! Well i was wondering what is special in blogging…!! Had been seeing many people doing it.. So wanted to start my own and know what it is and feel it. This is my first blog writing my experience in TI analog design contest 2011. Hope you people like it and also helps many upcoming aspirants🙂

TI – ADC 2011. This is one of the Analog Design Contest which Texas instruments conducts every year. In India it is called as “TI – INDIA – Analog Design Contest”. TI conducts similar events in many other countries too.

About TI India Analog Design Contest

The contest aims at promoting analog IC based-hardware system design in engineering institutions. This year, we are opening the contest to postgraduate students also, so that Masters and Ph.D. students can also take part! The contest will be organized in two phases.

Phase 1 – Intra College Challenge

At least three teams must be received from a college for the college to be qualified for Phase 1. Each team must consist of two or more undergraduate students OR two or more postgraduate students (mixing is not allowed). The proposals will be reviewed by an expert panel and the selected teams and colleges will be notified. It is expected that these teams will independently work on the project and submit a final report and a video of their project demonstration. TI will provide the hardware for these projects subject to constraints (see below). The
project reports and videos will be reviewed by an expert panel and one team from each college will be declared a winner. The winning teams of Phase 1 will receive a cash prize. The winning teams will have the opportunity to enter
Phase 2.

Phase 2 – Inter College Challenge

Winning teams of Phase 1 will be invited to an Educator’s conference where they will have the opportunity to showcase their projects. A team of experts will declare three winners in Phase 2. The top prize, Tom Engibous Award, named
after former CEO of TI, will fetch the winning team USD 10,000. The first runner-up prize, will fetch the winning team USD 5000. The second runner-up prize will fetch the winning team USD 2000. In addition, several additional
1 prizes will be awarded to recognize excellence in innovation and project execution.
For more details log on to

How the year passed by…

Well.. This was all about the competition. Coming to main part… The journey towards TI-ADC had begun about 1.5 years ago!!! I was looking at our seniors doing the project for TI-ADC-2010. The small small components which TI had
given used to inspire me. I had taken one decision at that time that next year I will be part of this competition. It was month of January… I heard that one among my seniors got selected for phase 2 and also earned money😛 My
Interest grew… Started browsing internet to know more details of competition. I found that one should require Ideas to enter this competition. It was not like some Robotics Competitions happening at IITs!!! Here the troubles started!!
From where should I get the idea!! It does not pour down na!!! Moreover the idea should be unique and my own!!! Ah…!!! Complete for one month I stick to computer for searching idea… Well.. In vain i found nothing… Meantime
TI-ADC-2011 announced!!! Lecturers in the college started describing about the competition in the classes!!! Competitions inside the college grew!!! My friends like me started running for ideas.. Started recruiting teams members :P!!! So did I!!! I approached by close friends and formed a team. We all started in search of ideas… Lectures called for submission of Ideas and explain it to them. They put a dead line…. Many had already got brain storming ideas… We still were empty handed…

Fuse burnt, Idea Flashed😛

One day a week before dead line… we had a birthday party… After finishing the party we were returning. As we walked in the footpath towards the college, we found a Man asking for address in the medical store. He was doing all sort of hand actions. It was quiet crazy!!! The medical store person was not able to know what he was conveying. We observed carefully and understood that he was mute person.(WE WONT USE DUMB word… Read on.. U will know Why!!). After the man repeated for few times, the store person understood what he was asking for. He showed the way. The incident which happened in front of our eyes had an impact on us. We wanted to do something for the
man. But what??? We discussed among ourselves in the college and at last decided lets make the man speak!!! Crazy idea we got and considered that we are applying this idea for the contest. Now we are stuck with new problem. How
can you make a mute person speak! If it was possible it would have done long before. Again we went near god “GOOGLE” and started searching for different methods in which these people communicate. Among all these we found that
hand signs was used most widely to communicate. And we understood the crazy actions what the man had done was hand signs!!! The idea which was overall was Convert Hand sign to Voice!!

We came up with a block diagram for this idea. It had just three basic components 1) Input 2)Controlling System 3)Output !!!😀 We started exploring for more better solution. We shared our idea with our seniors and asked for their
suggestions. They said to proceed with the idea. We started debugging block diagram… Each one was assigned a job. At the end of the day we all sat together and discussed what we found. One day was left for submission in the
college. And our abstract was not ready. The best part was we did not know how to write an abstract. Some how we were able to know what components we might require and wrote the abstract as we used to write notes! Took couple
of printouts and approached staff on the last day for mentoring us! First we described the idea to our mentors. And they said they will assist us. End of the day we were able to submit the abstract to concerned faculty. Next day we
went and inquired how many teams have approached. They said around 25-30. And also they said they will short list 20 initially. And will submit to Head of Department for further short listing. When we heard the number and procedure
we were sure we might not get selected. We did not lose hope. We decided if we don’t get selected we will continue the project. We continued for more details about the sensors required,etc. Meantime we used to wait for the result.
The short listed team names came after a week. Just 10 team were shorted from 20!!! The lecture called us and said… “HOD has selected your project to submit to the TI-ADC-2011”. We were very happy. And myself very happy. Because at least I can apply now!!🙂

Submission of the Idea to TI

TI announced that the CMT Link is activated and interested students can apply for the competition with necessary documents. With the help of the mentors we wrote our first Abstract. We browsed and decided some basic TI ICs which is required. Created an account in CMT website and uploaded. Remaining 9 teams did the same. This time we were quiet fast. Uploaded all document before a day. We continued the search for more data and information. We were feared that we wont be selected. The fear was because, TI such a big company, will it look to small idea like ours! That was a big question roaming my head all the night and day.


I used to check CMT site,my emails and their web page daily. This happened for more than 15 days… One day, my friend who was a senior called up and said, “hey dude, We didn’t make it. We didn’t get selected for TI”.They had a
brilliant idea though. I was shocked and lost hope. But result is result right! I being team leader for my group had to convey ,message. Ran to cyber center and browsed for result. The UNITI web page showed, TEAM NO COLLEGE TITLE TEAM LEADER TEAM MEMBERS. … .. …. …. And I could not wait any longer. Pressed CTRL+F, Searched for my name. The chrome described … Found (1/1)!!!😀 Phew!!! I understood our team did it!!! browsed down.. Found the project name in the list… TEAM 16 B M S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING .. . . . . The moment was the best feeling which I felt. Later I informed my team mates and others who had got selected. And also I felt sorry for those who didn’t make it. I checked my mail and found the confirmation of selection. CMT website was as it was. I informed my mentors. Next day we treated ourselves and found many friends congratulating!! First time experience,TI provided it!!


After the selection, the TI said they will contact us with in a week regarding how to proceed next. Week passed… 10 days passed!! No reply from them… I rechecked the CMT site to see whether I had given correct email address. Contacted other teams and checked whether they received any… On the 12th day, they replied!! They had given additional rules of the competition. In the phase 1 we had to design and verify the circuit or problem statement what they had given. It was an experiment to conduct. We were TEAM A.


We had quiet a time for PHASE 1. Initially we were worried about the experiment!! Hardly a few experiment works in lab!! and We were thinking what to do. Later we found that TI is providing one Analog Experimental board, we were quiet happy. TI people mailed stating that they had mailed the board. It was about 15 days after they had said about the experimental board. We didn’t get any. Since we had to submit the experimental results, we went to purchase the components required for the experiment. TL082 from TI was not available in many shop… For 2 consecutive days we searched and at last we found it. By the time we had read the data sheet of the IC. We really didn’t know how to read the data sheet till then. Something went to head and many things went above. We re-read the data sheet almost 10 times. By the time we were ready with the design and calculations, we designed our own circuit and took permissions to conduct the experiment in the labs. We designed circuits in TINA 9 software. We didn’t know head and tail of the software, but it was fun learning it. We learnt the software from designing a potential divider circuit. We later advanced for difficult circuits. We found the theoretical values. We later tried the same practically and found that we didn’t get the expected values. We designed similar circuits with known IC 741 and checked. We didn’t get our theoretical values. We thought we might have done some mistakes in circuit soldering. After 2 days we got the experimental board. It had a manual. We had never worked on the experimental board so far. We took couple of
days in understanding what exactly the board has. The main problem was how to give power supply for the board!!! There were no options any where. No wires. The manual showed that there is a power cable and it was not there in
box. Using multi-meter we found the power points and designed our own power circuit. We searched different papers online related to the experiment and read it. We had not done that experiment before. The phase 1 was happened during
our holidays. Semester End Holidays. Fast Track / Supplementary Classes were happening. And we used to go to college during that time.🙂 Friends used to ask us, “Hey which class u have? Which subject you flunked!!!” So did some
lectures. Almost one month full vacation we had spent it in the college. It was real fun answering these people questions. The best part was we used to bunk class during college and now during holidays we were going to college!!!
Coming back…. Mentors provided with their knowledge with the experiment. We formulated our own procedure. We again tried the circuit and found that we are not getting what we are supposed to get. After much trail and error method we found one set of values satisfying the requirements. We were happy. We took many values and started writing the report. At last we were done with the experiment and report. We showed the results to mentors and submitted it. To be frank, the experiment which we had got was one among the simplest and we had made it one among the complex!🙂 TI people said they will announce the results. We waited but we didn’t get any. Later we understood that result
will given given all together.


Components Submission

We had submitted the reports of phase 1A. TI people asked for giving list of components required for the project. We searched and found out components which is required for us. We helped others to decide. Seniors shared their experiences in selection of components. All the teams met and decided on each ones components. We submitted the components request to TI.

One day at TI

It was September 5th. The requested samples had arrived at TI office and 2 students were supposed to go there and collect it. Myself and my senior Nandish, decided to go and collect the components from them. We left college at 7 and started towards TI. I never had been to CV RAMAN NAGAR, nor was Nandish. As usual GOOGLE MAP with GPS navigation helped us to reach to CV RAMAN NAGAR. We were riding on a bike. I was looking around the road and was feeling how many MNC are there in Bangalore. When i was in my small village, during my 12th classes, one of my uncle had said, “ In Bangalore, If u throw a stone in the air, it will hit either an Engineer or MNC Buildings”. I felt that he has said it right!! We crossed HAL, moved towards BAGUMANE TECHPARK. The work of METRO was in progress and I saw the METRO train for the first time there. Al last we reached Bagumane tech Park. The security was very tight and asked for ID cards at the main gate. Later they allowed us after verifying. Tall and posh buildings were there in the
park. I was just staring at it. TI company was 4th in the row, after Motorola. The company was covered with sun glare glasses. The campus was so clean that I imagined I have landed in Singapore. We entered the company. After parking the bike we moved towards enterance of the company. There were two buildings and we didn’t know which to go! We moved towards right first and found the label, Canteen. We moved much front. and started clicking photos. Took couple of pictures and soon security found us and shouted, “You are not allowed to take pictures here. Where are you going?” We said“Oh, We didn’t know. Sorry. We wanted to go to company’s reception counter”. The security people were honest and guided us to reception. As we entered, the doors opened automatically. It was not normal automated door. Before I step into mat it used to detect me. I found there was some sensor which can detect the presence! The reception counter had three sets of high cushioned chairs. Haven’t seen such cushioned chairs in my life! A table with books. To the left there was door. It was totally secured and towards the right showcase and toilet. We took our ID cards and registered in the reception. I slowly moved towards the showcase. There were trophies, certificates,etc… The thing which impressed me was the right showcase, where they had kept different stages of IC fabrication starting from Sand!!! Never in my life before I had seen a Silicon wafer nor inside an IC. I wished my team mates where here. The sand,Silica,Silicon wafers,rectiles,… all were placed one after the other describing complete step by step of fabrication!. I was wondering. I felt imagination had come true.For half an hour I looked into each and every stuffs. Later I moved to toilet as my tank was full. They had embedded Electronics even in the toilet. There were many sensors. The best was the sensor which said germ contents in the toilet. If the sensor goes high, that means the toilet has to be subjected to maintenance. Later I moved and sat in the cushioned chairs. I met few people and made few friends. There were people who where speaking to go to Cambridge University,writing GRE,etc. I saw Dr.C P RAVIKUMAR, wearing green and black colored dress. Sir Sagar J came and checked whether all college had arrived. They later called all of us to their auditorium. The Dr. Ravikumar spoke and described about phase 1B of contest. They gave away the components and clicked photos with us. After clearing doubts, coffee and tea was served. We moved back to reception and waited for our components. We got the components and verified it and moved back towards the bike. Well, I didn’t want to return but I had no option too… We left to college and distributed the components the next day.

Back to project

We started slowly… We had decided upon the components but were not sure of the circuits. Again we divided the task and each one of us read different datasheets an designed different circuits. If one was doing sensor circuit other was busy with display circuit. Many a times we used to get stuck while designing and had referred our text books and asked for help from mentors. We later verified the circuit operations in TINA and Multisim. Classes had also begun
and we had to work parallel. It was November when TI asked for Intermediate report. We just had finished 1/4th of the project. The input side of the project was almost complete. We felt that we are stuck. So we decided to meet deaf and Mute people. We searched for 3 to 4 days for these people and found none. One of my friend, gave me a address in shivajinagar. He said that there is a hospital for these people. The next day was November 14th and We moved to that place. We spoke with many doctors present there. We told who we where and why had we come. We said “ We are here to know more about the hand signs used by deaf and dumb people. Can you help us?” The immediate response from the doctors was,“Dont call them as dumb people. Why do you use such a word. Those people are not dumb, they just cannot speak. They are just mute” The words what they told really meant a meaning to all of us. That is why we stopped using the word DUMB and we use MUTE. We met nearly 5 to 6 doctors and referred their library. We got lot of answers for our
questions We returned from there to college and continue the project. We had to submit the intermediate report. Night outs we did to finish the report. We had surprise quiz’s and exams in the college and we had surprise problems in the
project. Well we were totally into it by then. December month after finishing intermediate report we decided to give break for the project as our semester exams begun. For one month we just kept our progress very slow.

Final days

Exams finished on January 6th. We almost had forgotten what and all we did in the project. For two days we just went through what was done. I had written in my room walls about different steps to follow. In 2 days we were back with the project. We understood we wont be able to finish the project. But whats wrong in giving a try was my team mate suggestion. Day we sat together to work and night We used to code and simulate! For 6 days we did the same. Mentors helped us all the time. The demo was working at 11th day. We wanted to do the PCB. So we did it in two days. We didn’t give it to others because they charged heavy and took time. Our final PCB with circuits where ready and we were implementing it on hand on January 20th. We ran trail run, its was not working!😦 We again ran.. It was not working. Later when we checked for problem we understood that sensor was burnt. We didn’t have time to purchase new sensor😦 We thought we lost. We removed the senors and looked deep into it. I suggested lets do the operation for the
sensor!! Team mates said “U CRAZY???”. Well I was, because what would you do in the last minute if it does not work. I said “ However sensor is gone. What is wrong in operating it. started reading about sensors again!! This time we
were looking into fabrication!! I bisected the sensor carefully!!! Brought all the medical instruments for operation. Ran a trial run of operation. Found that it might work. The Crazy idea might work. January 22nd, we did the operation!!! Evening it was to see whether the patient sensor is dead or alive!!! Surprisingly it was alive and operation successful!!🙂 Phew!!! We tested it. We found that it was not behaving as it has o be. A clear understanding of sensor made us realize that some of features of the sensor was lost during operation😦 There were errors in the output and they are not steady. We thought we lost again!! But later we thought to solve this problem in the program. We rewrote the whole program and started testing it. On January 26th it was working. However we had not started with the report or video still. We complete the report in a day and we finished the video recording the other day. January 28th we called a person who was mute. Well we were in touch much before. We wanted to test the project with him. We assembled the project and tested. It was working good. We did a video of it. It was 28th night when we had finished video and report. We still were left making a single video. TI has shown sample video… we thought how to do it!! 28th night we didn’t sleep. We did the video editing. We had sat for about 32 hours without sleeping or taking rest!!! We learnt video editing,create video and uploaded it. It was end of vacation and We had not gone home still!! We submitted the video. I left towards home. Thinking to spend four days there at least. When we were about the send the report, one of my friend said, the video has spelling mistake!!!😦 I just had reached home. There is no internet!! January 29th we decided come online. I traveled 40 km to reach a small city where I can get internet. Luckily the internet was quiet speed🙂 We edited the video and resubmitted it. Successfully we had completed the prototype. We thought we could not complete the prototype but the word “What if we try..” lead us to complete it.


Over all the experience which we got was amazing. I realized my dream, so did my team mates. The project gave an inspiration to our mute friend. So far we have reached… Only Phase 1 is completed… We are waiting for results.
All of us are in cloud nine!! Finger crossed and waiting… As day passes fear of not getting selected increases… This time if we dont get selected we wont be unhappy. We are happy that we could really do something. The TI-ADC
has gave us lot of stuffs to learn. Lot of things have changed in life. We used to study Engineering before, now we are learning Engineering. TI-ADC has given great impact. Well… now we wish… We want to participate again in the
competition. We are searching for ideas…

The video of the project can be seen here in the site :
Hope you liked the blog. And hope to see many participants in 2012🙂

Few other links where you can download the software which I have used for Phase 1A

TINA 9 :

Multisim :

Ngspice :

GTKwave :

Phase 1B :

IAR workbench :

Code composer studio (CCS):

MSP430 Grace :

Others useful :

Filter Pro :

C2000 for CCS  :

PCB Designing using Eagle

Fed up with soldering circuits with wires and thinking all over to find where the loose connection did happen! Or why the circuit is not function? If you are at this point then better jump to PCBs. Lot of problems will be solved. If u wants to try out something new, u can also go with PCB designs. So let’s see how to design PCB using Eagle software. I am going to show how to design PCB from schematic and later in board. In the next tutorial I will speak about PCB etching and debugging.
If u have ever designed a circuit In GPCB (general purpose PCB) then u might know the complexity involved in soldering and giving connections. When u do testing, most of the time, the circuit will be shorted! Or if u doesn’t want your board to fail in middle of competition or demonstration it’s good to proceed with PCBs. If u go for professional shop, then they will make sure to empty ur pockets! If the design is simple why not do it our self? The tutorial will show how to build Ur PCB in quiet a small amount (About Rs.250 to Rs.300)
To design the schematic and the pcb layout, we’ll be using EAGLE which is a tool created for just that. It has a large number of parts and if you don’t find one that you need, you can create one yourself very easily. You can download the light version here, it has all the features that the professional version does. The only limitation being that the board size can’t exceed 10cmx8cm. If you want to make bigger boards then you can purchase the professional version (I’m sure you can figure out how to get it without paying but just remember that its illegal if you want to use it professionally).
I just use EAGLE because it’s the first tool I used to create PCB’s and I’ve been using it ever since. There are other PCB editors like DipTrace, EasyPCB etc which provide better UI and autorouting options than eagle. Once you know how to use EAGLE, you can use the other editors with ease.
To get you acquainted with the basics of EAGLE we’ll be designing a simple LED flasher using the 555 IC.
After downloading and installing EAGLE, open it and create a new project and give it a name(It’ll be a folder icon under eagle).

Then create a new schematic by going to File>New> Schematic. EAGLE doesn’t ask you a name like most other apps so its better if you save it with a unique name or else you’ll end up with a bunch of files called “untitled”. You’ll get a screen like this

Click on the Add button on the left toolbar, this dialog will let you access all the parts available in eagle but the search function isn’t that great, you can however, search using a wildcard character if you don’t know the exact part number. For example, search for “*555” and select ne555 from the list .

Place the device anywhere you want using the left mouse button.

Next we’ll add resistors which can be found in the same ADD dialog, but EAGLE has a lot of packages for resistors and capacitors which can be a bit confusing for a beginner. Search for “resistor” in the search box
and you’ll get a bunch of results, choose resistor>R-US_ and select the 10mm package.

Now place four resistors as shown.

Now we’ll place capacitors. Click on ADD again and search for “capacitor” and select rcl>CPOL-US and select the 5mm package and place it on the layout. Add another capacitor but this time an 8mm package. It doesn’t matter in which library you find the package as long its of the correct size.

After you’ve placed them, it should look something like this

(C1 is the 5mm package and C2 is the 8mm package)
Now we’ll place two LED’s by searching for “LED” and selecting led>LED and then the 5mm package. If you want to rotate any part to fit the schematic, you can do so by selecting the component and clicking the right mouse button.

Now we’ll place a potentiometer, again click on ADD, search for “potentiometer” and select pot>TRIM_US and S64W package. Im choosing this package because this is the actual pot that ill be using on the PCB, if you have a different type of pot then choose the right one.

If you want to move any component around, select the “move” button from the left toolbar and select on the component you want to move and move it around. If it’s a big component then just pressing inside the empty space inside it wont move it, you have to select it using the + mark inside the component. I found this out after a lot of cursing.
Now we’ll place a two pin header for connecting the power supply.

Now we’ll name all the components so they’re easier to recognize.
Select the Info button and click on R4 and type in “1.5K” in the value box.

Do the same for R1(470Ω),R2(470Ω) , R3 (1.5K) and R5(220K).
Now assign the values for the capacitors. C1 is 10uF and c2 is 100uF.

Now we’ll begin connecting all the components. To easily connect wires you can choose to see the pins by going to view>Display/Hide Layers and selecting Pins. Now Select the wire tool and click on one of the pins and move your mouse to the other pin which you want to connect and click on it. If you want to stop the connection on a pin then you have to double click on that pin or you can press escape after you’ve connected it. Make the connections as shown.

If you’re not sure whether the connection has taken place to a certain component then select the move button and move the component around, if the wire also moves around with it, it means its connected. If not, select the delete tool and remove the wire and re-connect.
After everything is done, click on the info button and then click on any wire which is connected to VCC and change its name to “VCC”, it would be something like N$10. Do the same for the ground wire and name it “GND”. This is needed later when designing the PCB layout.
That’s it for the schematic. If you want you can add a frame containing the details in case you have to submit it somewhere by going to ADD and searching for “frame” and selecting whichever size you want.
Now we’ll move onto actually designing the PCB. Click on the Board button present on the top toolbar and select yes when it asks if you want to create a new board. You’ll get a new window which has a black background containg all the parts jumbled together on one side. There’s a white border towards the right, this is the actual workable area of the PCB. You can resize the size of the PCB using these white lines.

Now its obvious that you want your PCB to be as small as possible but you wont know how small you can make it until you try placing the components. In any circuit, start with the main component in the center and put the others around it. You can then see how they actually connect to each other and move them around if necessary.
Start by reducing the workable area to a size slightly bigger than you want. To do this, select the move tool, click on the right most line and bring it towards the left. Do the same for the top line and bring it down to reduce the size, you should get something like this-

Now select the 555 IC and move it towards the center.

Ok so I just realized I’ve made a mistake in the schematic, instead of connecting one of the wires to the middle of the pot, I’ve connected it to the other end. But its not a big deal, you can just go back to the schematic and correct it. If you do so, you’ll see that it automatically gets updated in the board layout too.
The wrong connection is shown as a red cross mark.

Use the delete button to delete the wrong connection and re-connect it using the wire tool.
The corrected version –

Now move all the other parts around until they look something like this. Again, to rotate a part use the right click.

I’ve moved all the parts towards the left- bottom corner. To do this, click on the selection box tool and create an area around all the parts, then select the move button and right click on any part and click move group and move it to the corner.
To re-route the air wires to their closest points you can go to Tools and select ratsnest.
We can now reduce the PCB area even more since we have a lot of empty space.

Before we begin routing wires we have to set the properties of the routing like minimum width of the wire, spacing between the wires etc. These are called “Design rules” and the default rules in EAGLE are not exactly hobbyist friendly so it has to be tweaked a little. I’ve uploaded a file containing the Design rules that I use so you can use it directly, or you can set the values yourself.
Download the Desing Rules File here
If you want to use the file I’ve uploaded, go to Edit> Design rules, click on Load and select the file and click OK.
If you want to change it manually, these are the settings

This sets the minimum distance between two routings.

This is for the minimum width of the wire.

I haven’t changed anything in this but this is to set the size of the pads and vias.
After setting the rules we can now start routing. EAGLE has a decent autorouter which you can use for small circuits.
Go to Tools and select autorouter, this dialog will let you access the routing settings like number of layers, cost of each layer etc. Select NA for top layer and ‘–‘ for bottom layer since we’re doing only a single sided board.

After you click OK, you’ll see a bunch of blue lines, these are the actual copper traces. If you use this layout to etch it’ll work but it’s always a good idea to add a power plane to the circuit. A power plane is a large area on the layout which is connected to either VCC or ground. There are many reasons to add a power plane, it’ll reduce the amount of etchant required, it’ll help the toner stick better and it’ll help carry large currents in case your circuit needs it. You can do this by selecting the polygon tool from the left toolbar and drawing a box around the layout like this-

Click on the info button and then on the polygon and type in the isolate value as 1.2 and name as “VCC”. The isolate value defines the minimum clearance between the plane and any other signal. The name you give connects the plane to that signal. If you cant rename it, go to edit> name, click on the polygon and rename it.

Now go to tools and press ratsnest, you should get something like this-

If it gives an error saying wrong polygon or something like that then you have to do the following.
Zoom in on the point where you ended the polygon, mine was upper left corner

You can see there are multiple dots there, you have to delete one of them so that it looks like this.

Now try ratsnest again and it should work.
Now create one more polygon as before but this time only update the isolate value and leave the name as whatever it is. You cannot add two power planes in a single layer, so this polygon will just fill empty spaces with copper without connecting it to anything. This will reduce the amount of etchant required to etch the pcb.

Well that’s the final PCB layout which you can use to etch. I haven’t covered all the concepts but I hope its enough to get you started. There are a few things I’d like to mention,
1. There’s no option to undo the wires created by the autorouter. To delete them, select all the wires using the selection box, select rip-up and right click on any wire and press rip-up all.
2. Most of the time the routing wont be 100%, so you’ll have to use some external wires, to do this you have to add vias where you want to connect external wires and route them manually.
3. To hide/unhide any layers use the Display/hide layers dialog found in the View menu.
A tutorial on etching the PCB is coming soon.
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Fedora: some useful commands

Few use full commands which one has to know before doing anything
these commands are with respect to the terminal.
first go to terminal
echo $SHELL

2)To know which shells are supported
cat /etc/shells

3) To list different directories and files
dir –color

to display hidden file
ls -A
ls -a

4)Present working directory

5)system time and date


7) T open a manual of any software which is installed then type
8)To create folders

to make multiple folders
mkdir -p abc/b/c
creates a folder c in b in abc

to c all internal folders
ls -R

8)To know file type

9)change directory
cd .. —————————–>goes to previos directory
cd ——————————> goes to root

10)To delete a folder
rm -rf

11)create a txt file

12)Go to root


14)To display a msg
echo ” message”

15)To copy

16)To rename

17)To copy a directory
cp -r

18)To display ip

19)To change ip

20)Create tar(zipped files)

tar -cvf .tar

extracts tar contents
>>tar -xvf .tar
>>tar -tvf .tar

>>gunzip .tar.gz

Hope u enjoy this🙂